An awareness program is also availed to all its organizational members as a means to emphasize the essential role of responsible conduct and compliance in achieving human rights goals


An awareness program is also availed to all its organizational members as a means to emphasize the essential role of responsible conduct and compliance in achieving human rights goals

An awareness program is also availed to all its organizational members as a means to emphasize the essential role of responsible conduct and compliance in achieving human rights goals

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Positive Sides of Caffeine

It is found that caffeine significantly increases wakefulness and clarity of thought. For some time, the intellectual process is facilitated, decision time is shortened and, according to some people, attentiveness is increased (“Caffeine” n.d.). The initial rise of the forces caused by caffeine temporarily eliminates fatigue and drowsiness. Hot cup of coffee as a mean of emergency relieves bronchial asthma because caffeine enhances bronchioles – the main part of lungs taking part in gaseous exchange (Astorino and White 2012, 365). Some people believe that a cup of coffee removes small headache. Many medicines for colds and headaches contain caffeine and are said to be very efficient. However, all the above positive effects of caffeine are temporary. After a short lived exciting and restorative effect, the presence of caffeine in the human body leads to longstanding negative outcomes.

The Mechanism of Caffeine Action

The chemical name of caffeine is 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (Astorino and White 2012, 43). Pure caffeine is a bitter white powder similar to powdered sugar. It is very soluble in water and therefore easily enters the bloodstream and quickly reaches the brain where manifests remarkable effects. Caffeine is determined in blood within 10 minutes after drinking the beverage. Peak concentration of caffeine in the blood occurs in 30-60 minutes after consumption, but at filled stomach, the absorption is slower (Fisone, Borgkvist, and Usiello 2004, 859).

Experimental studies, during which the electrical activity of the brain was measured, showed that caffeine in one or two cups of instant coffee significantly alters the level of brain activity from the normal state of rest to a highly active state. For this reason caffeine is sometimes called “psychotropic drugs.”  Caffeine affects the brain by blocking the action of adenosine, other chemical compound affecting the psyche. Adenosine slows the release of mediators – chemicals that transmit nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. This is the calming effect of adenosine on the human body. Without the calming effects and control of adenosine, nerve cells become rapidly excited. Caffeine blocks the action of adenosine and, thus, has a stimulating effect on human nervous system.

Caffeine also stimulates the adrenal glands increasing the blood level of stress hormones – adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol. These hormones are produced when a person is anxious, frightened, upset or excited, and generate in response to stress.profile essay These hormones also excite and stimulate the brain. Overall, caffeine not only increases the degree of stress in the organism (generation of stress hormones), but also blocks the action of adenosine, one of the chemical compounds, relieving stress. No wonder that after every cup of coffee, a person feels energized and active.

Caffeine Action Duration

Caffeine continues to have an effect until persists in the bloodstream. Meanwhile, liver enzymes resolve a chemical compound and output it from the body. The half-life of caffeine is the time it takes the liver to recycle the half of the amount taken. It depends on the body’s individual features. Regular half-life of caffeine in the adult body varies between two and ten hours, averaging about four hours (“Medicines in my Home” n.d.). This great difference explains why some people can drink a lot of coffee without much effect while others feel nervous, restless and even cannot tolerate caffeine. Men and women have to define different levels of caffeine metabolic rate, i.e. its exchange in the body.

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Smoking induces the activity of substances (enzymes) involved in the metabolic rate of caffeine; however, smokers have a 50% higher rate of metabolic rate compared to nonsmokers (Mandel 2002, 1233). This means that smokers experience the effects of caffeine in a shorter time and possibly need to drink more caffeine-containing drinks to “wake up.” Other stimulants such as alcohol reduce the degree of caffeine cleavage, and oral contraceptive drugs can triple the half-life of caffeine. Thus, the women taking these drugs strongly react to the second dose of caffeine, i.e. the large amount of undissolved caffeine remains in blood.


In Sports. Caffeine is extensively used as tonic substance by athletes. It is believed that it has a positive effect on the body during exercise; in particular, it increases the amount of energy, the response time and the activity and adds endurance. The researches have shown that it works as a stimulant for muscles to use a larger amount of fat as an energy source than at the absence of caffeine in the blood (Astorino and White 2012, 365). Thus, the same athlete will be able to train longer and harder after drinking a cup of coffee.

It is believed that before the training (in 15-20 min), it is enough to drink three cups of coffee, and even safer to accept this amount as a tablet, about 200 mg, to attain better results in training than usually. However, the result is individual, and it is determined by what one wants to obtain. Therefore, the dosage is determined individually.

To “Charge” the Brain. Another benefit of caffeine is its ability to increase and improve cognitive function of the brain. It was shown that 75-150 mg of caffeine increases neuron (nerve cells) activity in certain regions of the brain that helps perform simple intellectual tasks (Smith, Uma Gupta and B.S. Gupta 2006, 49). Many people speak about the positive results from taking caffeine before active mental activity, for example, before preparing for the exam.writing papers for money It is believed that caffeine provides a memory support. People suggest that caffeine may help to recall the information since it plays a role in the allocation of adrenaline/norepinephrine ( the stress hormone) in the brain and, in turn, helps to recreate the right moments from the past.

To Reshape the Body. To get rid of extra kilograms, one many turn to caffeine in its most common form – coffee or use it as a supplement. Caffeine enhances and burns lipolysis (fat) during physical activity. It is also believed that it suppresses appetite. In addition, due to the mentioned characteristics, caffeine is the key ingredient used in modern food supplements for fat loss (Nawrot et al. 2003, 10).

In Medicine. Caffeine is widely used as an anesthetic, primarily for the treatment of a headache. As mentioned, caffeine helps increase the blood flow to the brain in order to nullify the pain. It stimulates breathing reflex in infants with apnea (unintentional stop of breathing). Additionally, caffeine may be used in those cases when breathing attenuated (e.g., with an overdose of heroin and other narcotics or drugs). Caffeine extends the respiratory tract, and thus, it is considered useful in treating asthma. However, according to some studies, its use is fairly modest (Nawrot et al. 2003, 12).

Caffeine Addiction

Regular consumers of caffeinated beverages develop a resistance to caffeine. This means that to achieve the desired effect they should drink more and more drinks. In fact, as soon as one reaches this level, caffeine begins to provide other undesirable side effects on the body. To a certain extent, the person becomes over-stimulated; one can observe increased nervousness, anxiety, agitation, erratic movements due to violation of coordination and connection between the nerve cells and nerve endings. All these changes lead to a dependence on the first morning cup of coffee and, as a result, caffeine.

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Caffeine is frequently called a narcotic, which means it has a certain narcotic and addictive influence on the human body. It is a substance getting into the habit and leading to the addiction, although formally, caffeine is not classified as a narcotic drug because not every person becomes dependent on it (Juliano and Griffiths 2004, 8). Nevertheless, of course, many people are dependent on caffeine and even suffer severe withdrawal syndrome. This is because its initial stimulating effect is erased with time, and a person yearns for more and more caffeine-containing substances to experience the familiar rise of forces. Consumption of four and more cups of caffeine-containing drinks a day usually results in the addiction to caffeine and likeliness to suffer from the ravages of withdrawal.

Side Effects

Caffeine depletes energy potential. Despite the fact that its consumption makes the initial influx of physical and mental strength, soon, this process slows down, and the person feels less energetic. Accustomed to caffeine people often show symptoms of fatigue, lethargy and irritability. The substance also increases diuresis (the formation and excretion of urine). Caffeine causes a loss of calcium as it increases calcium excretion in the feces and urine resulting in a deficiency of calcium and other minerals such as sodium, magnesium, potassium and others. The loss of calcium is particularly increased when taking caffeine together with sugar.

Caffeine increases the level of cholesterol in the blood. Brewed coffee contains lipid, which greatly increases the cholesterol level in blood serum. Four cups of coffee raise cholesterol levels in the blood at 5%, and about ten cups – at 12% (Astorini and White 2012, 258).  In addition, it hinders the process of assimilation of food in the gut. When consuming coffee, intestinal mucosa envelops and impregnates with chemical compounds that interfere with the proper involvement of the intestine during digestion. Consumption of caffeine can enhance other disorders of the digestive tract such as colitis and hemorrhoids (Nawrot et al. 2003, 16).

Coffee and caffeine containing drinks lead to a deficiency of B vitamins. When consuming large amounts of caffeine, the body loses vitamins B complex. These vitamins play a important role in energy metabolic rate, and high caffeine intake results in the loss of nutrients required for energy release. No wonder that people feel tired both physically and mentally without regular caffeine intake. Moreover, caffeine has a negative effect on the heart. It causes palpitations and irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), increases blood pressure. This leads to an increased load on the heart and may be potentially dangerous for people suffering coronary heart disease.

Caffeine increases the acidity of gastric juice. It arouses the secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Increased secretion causes heartburn, indigestion and aggravates the ulcer. These problems become more acute when coffee is used under stress condition because during the stress response, stomach lengthens the evacuation of its contents, coffee retains longer in the stomach, as well as the adverse side effects are seen for a long time. For this reason people with violations of gastric acidity must reduce consumption of coffee and tea, and people suffering from a stomach ulcer should completely abandon the consumption of these drinks.

Among other side effects, one can find a sleep disturbance. Caffeine alters the normal rhythm of sleep. Caffeine consumers are easily aroused due to sudden noises, harder to fall asleep and never feel the influx of fresh forces after sleep. It is assumed that caffeine affects the “REM sleep” (active sleep with ambitions) (Astorino and White 2012, 291). Without adequate “REM sleep”, a person becomes restless, irritable, tense, and has a lower life expectancy ability to concentrate.

Finally, caffeine causes headache, irritability, and anxiety. Victims of caffeine often complain of headaches, as after a hangover, irritability, anxiety, depression. In fact, coffee and tea were included in the set of factors that trigger migraines. It also has side effects on the kidneys and liver. In people abusing coffee, kidneys and liver are “overworked” and therefore disrupt their normal activities. This is the reason that people with impaired renal and hepatic function are advised to refrain from drinking coffee and tea.

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Dosage and Medical Necessity

As it was already mentioned, caffeine can be found in different foods. Its amount can differ markedly. For example, many popular drinks contain stunning amounts of caffeine in comparison to the average coffee cup (volume 200 ml) which contains about 100 mg of caffeine. The medical estimated safe single dose is 100-200 milligrams of caffeine per day and no more than 1 gram. Roughly speaking, 1-2 cups of coffee drunk in the morning do not hurt a healthy person (Nawrot et al. 2003, 18). Lethal dose is dependent upon the weight of human and individual susceptibility to the substance, ranging from 150 to 200 mg per 1 kg of weight. Thus, if one weighs 75 kg, then 15g of caffeine may have a lethal effect.

People who suffer increased excitability and insomnia, have hypertension, atherosclerotic disorders, glaucoma, disorders of the cardiovascular system should abstain from caffeine (Smith 2002, 1247). In addition, coffee is not healthful for elderly. One should know that people who are nervous, prone to depression, and even in a state of extreme fatigue do not improve their performance by making use of caffeinated beverages. In this case, instead of the desired vigor, one can get the reverse effect while the body will begin to struggle with the process of excessive excitability of the nervous system.

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Ethical Issues related to Two or More of the Philosophical Theories

The HRW carries out its operations in diverse communities across the globe, which have different priorities in terms of human rights maters. Human rights definition differs from one region to another, depending on the historical and cultural background of the society in question (Donaghue, 2010). Due to varied viewpoints on human rights, the HRW faces several ethical issues in advocating for individual rights of every human being. One of the prominent ethical issues facing Human Rights Watch is dismissal of economic, social, and cultural rights as irrelevant human rights by the Western world. On the one hand, the ideology that only civil and political rights are fundamental human rights greatly underscores efforts of the HRW to attain universal human dignity and advocacy of humanitarian works. The theory of idealism has been used to support notions that economic rights are an individual affair, thus bringing out a capitalistic nature that the HRW has to tackle in order to achieve universal human rights goals.

On the other hand, the HRW also faces the ethical issue of defining human rights in different regions. The shift in meaning and regional perspectives of human rights advocacy is a contesting issue that seems to water down universal objectives of human rights attainment by the HRW. The use of rationalism to approach the issue displays a disparity between actual knowledge and prior perceptions on human rights and its violations. Understanding of the works carried out by the HRW differs across regions. In addition, various emerging trends overlap over the essence of human rights advocacy. Thus, a rational approach in promoting human rights is one of the best means to consolidate universe understanding of the definition of human rights from a common viewpoint.

Ethical Challenges Facing the HRW

The Issue of Dealing with Governments

The first ethical challenge facing the HRW is the issue of dealing with governments, especially in foreign regions. As mentioned earlier, the HRW has its offices in over 70 countries as well as the organization stretches its operations in many other nations across the globe. Therefore, the HRW largely relies on connection and cooperation with governments in order to effectively execute its mission of protecting rights of every individual. The dilemma that the HRW grapples with is the issue of funding by local governments. Most governments are keen to fund non-profit organizations, but the HRW is nonetheless different from other organizations. Due to the nature of the HRW, the organization dramatically is dependent upon donations and grants as a source of its funding. In many occasions, such funding is not adequate to sustain the work and operations of the organizations, thus explaining the need to accept government funds. Acceptance of government funding gives human rights organizations a benefit to access larger proportion of resources needed to carry out its operations without wasting time on charity/fund-raising activities. Unfortunately, this type of partnership with governments tends to blur the element of freedom that is primarily the hallmark of any human rights organization.

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The use of funds to aid the NGOs is one of the measures that many governments incorporate as a means of controlling the flow of information, sovereignty, and freedom of human rights NGOs such as the HRW. In the light of this, the HRW does not receive funding from governments. The organization does so as a means of maintaining control and independence in investigating and reporting abuse of citizens’ rights. The ethical problem of whether or not to accept funding from governments is a tough dilemma that the HRW seeks to address in the best way possible so as to remain a sovereign and reliable organization.

Moreover, in line with political theories, different governments have varying levels of democracy, a factor that greatly affects outlining of human rights and justice in the regions. Some countries are democratic in the sense that human rights efforts are fundamental while some nations are less democratic and as such. Human rights efforts are relatively given little or no priority. The HRW is mandated as an international human rights organization to carry out human rights operations in all countries within their reach despite the level of democracy held in a particular nation. It hence becomes a great challenge for the HRW to collaborate with less democratic nations in achieving humanitarian goals and enforcing justice at all levels (Donnelly, 2013). The ethical issue surrounding collaboration with less democratic nations is that, in the long run, the HWR is forced to avoid addressing politically sensitive issues such as the freedom of press and political rights of non-conformists in the country.

Additionally, less democratic nations may take advantage of collaborations with the HRW organization to suggest that their policies on human rights are indeed improving. Through such manipulations, many less democratic nations can shun away and weaken any criticism brought forth by any other international human rights organization. In instances where the HRW has turned down funding offers and collaborations with less democratic governments, the organization has faced hostility and massive suspicion from such governments. Such opposition from governments can cripple efforts of the HRW in its path to promote human rights and political and social justice.

The Challenge of Global Poverty

Another main ethical issue facing the HRW organization is the challenge of global poverty. Realization that poverty is seemingly becoming a international concern has in many ways shaped the entire definition of human rights and humanitarian efforts.  Traditionally, Human Rights Watch is focused primarily on political and civil rights efforts. As it stands, political and civil rights are immensely prioritized by many Western governments and international organizations. Calls for a shift in focus have been on the rise, with subsequent demands to governments and human rights lobby groups to embrace economic, cultural, and social rights as fundamental aspects in the community today.  In the wake of demand for economic, social, and cultural justices, the HRW has been forced to expand its scope of operations and broaden its objectivity in the areas pertaining to economic, social, and cultural rights (Rights, 2009). The ability to comprehend what is universally wrong from what is right is a paramount task for any lobby group that aims to promote humanitarian efforts. As a human rights organization, the quest to uphold humanity requires tenacity in understanding, weighing different situations, and outlining morally correct approach to take. The HRW has successfully managed to adopt economic, social, and cultural rights (ESC) as equally important aspects in the society, which require similar efforts and attention as civil and political rights (CP). The challenge facing the HRW concerns the best avenues to deploy in ensuring that, while addressing ESC rights, there is equally no biasness in addressing the CP rights. In order to ensure that the ESC rights are effectively addressed, the HRW group uses a four-part methodology. Elements encompass the parts of investigating, shaming, documenting, and actions that are publicizing behaviors of governments and other key players that are deemed morally wrong in accordance with the norms of international human rights (Roth, 2004).

Nevertheless, there is a thin line between promoting the ESC rights and ensuring that effective measures are set up by governments to reduce poverty through proper re-distribution of wealth and resources. Additionally, adoption of the ESC rights into the HRW mandate is relatively viewed as a additional burden to the organization. Keeping in mind that there is still a lot of work that needs to be done pertaining to political and civil rights, an ambit of concern surrounds the purpose and objectivity of Human Rights Watch and its ethical responsibility to ensure that solutions to bring an end to global poverty are implemented (Sen, 2005).


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Individual Conflicts of Responsibility

As a human rights lobby group, the HRW has a collective team of staff who specialize in different fields and expertise that are efficient in achieving the organization’s humanitarian objectives and goals. The team of staff working for the HRW entails lawyers, journalists, country specialists, and a panel of academics all of whom all share a common goal in human rights activism. Individuals working for the HRW are of different nationalities and come from diverse backgrounds. Given the nature of work carried out by the Human Rights Watch organization, there are various ethical challenges that employees face in the line of duty. In addition, conflicts of responsibilities are inevitable due to a highly demanding nature of human rights lobbying in terms of employee performance.

Individuals working at the HRW are often required to work in hostile regions such as areas facings wars and conflicts, famine-stricken regions, and other politically high-tensioned regions. Such individuals face oppression from hostile and foreign governments and many face victimization or arrests and, in extreme cases, some are subjected to torture, especially in regions where their operations are deemed non-bureaucratic (Pogge, 2008). Moreover, individuals face harassments, threats, and fear instilled by governments who aim to intimidate operations of the HRW. For instance, shutting down associated with the HRW offices in Uzbekistan led to harassment of the staff working in that region. They were constantly surviving in fear of prosecution and this greatly affected their ability to condemn injustices witnessed in the nation. Individuals working in the HRW offices, which are located in hostile environments, grapple with the challenge of safeguarding their own interests and life or doing what is morally right by openly condemning inhuman injustices that are carried out (Gaer, 1995).

Strategies to Maintain Responsible Conduct

The process of defining and developing a responsible code of conduct is a paramount aspect of every international human rights organization. The code of conduct should extensively cover elements that support and value human rights activities. In order to function effectively as an international human rights movement, the Human Rights Watch organization has incorporated the use of various strategies in its operations. The HRW does so as a means of upholding and maintaining the organizational code of responsible conduct that is essential in the delivery of human rights-related services. In order to ensure that the developed code of responsible conduct is maintained, the HRW ensures that, first and foremost, the board of directors and executive managers is entirely committed to overseeing responsible conduct within the organization. Frequent reviews of the code of conduct by the board and senior managers has enabled the HRW to maintain responsible conduct at all levels of engagement since participation of top managers as well as the board of directors has a great influence on the organizational culture.

Secondly, the organization ensures that there is an international multi-disciplinary committee developed to oversee review of the contents of the code of conduct as well as the regulation of acceptable staff behavior (Donaghue, 2010). Finally, the HRW maintains responsible conduct by continuously creating awareness and promoting a code of conduct among its staff. An awareness program is also availed to all its organizational members as a means to emphasize the essential role of responsible conduct and compliance in achieving human rights goals. In addition, through the awareness program, staff members are familiarized with the consequences of irresponsible behavior and its penalties.


Human Rights Watch is concerned with the advocacy for human rights. The organization is dedicated to investigating, researching, and exposing various types of human rights violation on the international media. However, there are various obstacles and possible challenges that constrain operations of Human Rights Watch in its battle against human rights abuse across the globe. Nevertheless, there are various recommendations that the organization can adopt as a means of mitigating the impact of ethical challenges it faces in different regions of the world. The following are proposed recommendations for Human Rights Watch. They include:

–     Above all, the primary purpose of Human Rights Watch should always be to protect and promote human rights in the most ethical and moral manner. Human rights of every individual should receive first priority whether political, civil, economic, social, or/and cultural rights regardless of challenges and obstacles that are present.

–    The HRW should establish an international legal and policy framework that supports and safeguards its operations in foreign regions as a means of controlling interference with hostile governments. In addition, the HRW should establish rules of engagement when dealing with foreign governments so as to avoid cases of intimidation of its staff as well as the organization as a whole.

–    It should promote coordination and cooperation with governments in the human rights efforts. Government involvement is significant in achieving humanitarian goals. By establishing platforms for communication with governments, the HRW can persuade governments to support its cause by signing and ratifying legislation that guarantees human rights support to all citizens.

Implementation of the above recommendations requires an in-depth consideration so as to achieve successful outcomes. Several factors can affect effective implementation of the recommendations such as poor communication channels. The use of an ethical decision-making model is an useful framework for finding suitable solutions when faced with ethical dilemmas. One of the factors that would hinder successful implementation of the recommendations is the inability to identify the problem at hand and its related potential issues. Additionally, a failure to review relevant ethical instructions, laws, and regulations will cause poor understanding of ethical problems and potential solutions. As an organization, the HRW should also be able to consult and identify a possible cause of action to be followed in the implementation process. Another factor that would affect Human Rights Watch’s implementation of the stated recommendations is gaining a clear understanding of possible consequences and keenly identifying the best outcome to employ.

Successful implementation of these possible recommendations will generate several beneficial outcomes for the Human Rights Watch organization. The expected outcomes following the implementation of the recommendations include:

–    Further expansion of the HRW operations into untapped regions

–    an increase in the human labor capacity

–    Extensive achievements in human rights-based activities

–    International recognition and cooperation with foreign governments

–    Financial and resource support from governments and concerned parties without manipulations of the organization’s independence.

–    The ability to research and report with biases through the use of technology as a means of becoming the voice of victims of human rights violation.

Relation of Issues to Social Justice Themes

One of the issues that face the HRW is connection with governments, especially in foreign regions. Governments are key players in matters pertaining to human rights and human rights abuse. The social justice theme of human rights is well brought out in the ethical issue of dealing with governments. In most cases, governments are major offenders of human rights. The level of human rights in a nation is a direct reflection of the type of governance present. Hence, human rights relate with governments and safeguard of these rights is important (Uvin, 2004).

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The issue of global poverty is also an ethical challenge facing the HRW in its advocacy to maintain human dignity. Global poverty relates directly to the social justice theme of equality. Equality can be described in terms of equal distribution of resources and wealth among all citizens regardless of their ethical or social status. Poverty is largely a product of inequalities in the distribution of resources done by governments. Therefore, global poverty contravenes universal economic rights that each should enjoy.


Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-profit organization that largely involves itself in advocating for human rights and criticizing acts of human rights violations. The HRW operates in accordance with the International Human Rights Laws and promotes humanitarian works across the globe. There are various ethical challenges that face operations of the HRW. They include issues of how best to deal with governments as well as the continuous rise in global poverty. Due to these ethical challenges, the work of the HRW has faced numerous obstacles both as an organization and its individual staff members. Various recommendations are available and successful implementation of these recommendations will bring forth effective outcomes that will ease the operation of the HRW and its personnel who frequently witness harassment and intimidation. Despite constant constraints, Human Rights Watch has continually managed to promote humanitarian works and adopt methodologies that report on abuse of human rights.

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Types of Fire Hoses

Fire hoses may be broadly categorized into two major groups, namely discharge hoses and suction hoses. The discharge hoses are used to transport water under high pressure from fire engines, fire pumpers, or fire hydrants to the scene of fire in order to extinguish it. Discharge fire hoses can work under positive pressure. Examples of discharge hoses are attack hoses, supply hoses, relay hoses, forestry hoses, and booster hoses. On the other hand, suction hoses are used for sucking water from unpressured sources such as dams and rivers through the use of a vacuum (International Fire Service Training Association 66). Suction hoses include fire hoses that operate under negative pressure.